We considered the following questions when including a resource here:

1. Has this resource significantly impacted the way I think about program development and articulation?

2. Is this resource essential to helping others understand key concepts, principles, or components of program development and articulation?

3. Does this resource offer practical help to educators who are trying to initiate, implement, or sustain program development and articulation efforts?

4. Does this resource provide something invaluable to professional educators? (In other words, would there be a professional knowledge gap if it were missing from this list?)

Advocacy, Parent Relations, Public Relations

Fortune, Tara W., & Tedick, Diane J. (2003, August). What parents want to know about FL immersion programs. CAL. (EDO FL-03-04). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from

A short digest that provides useful background information on FL immersion programs. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Frantz, Alan, C. (1996, Fall). Seventeen values of foreign language study. ADFL Bulletin. 28, no. 1, pp. 44-49. Retrieved June 12, 2006 from http://www.ade.org/adfl/bulletin/v28n1/281044.htm

Based on a survey of higher education FL professionals a decade ago, the reasons provided still strike a chord. (Submitted by Steve Brock).

Panetta, Leon (1999, May). Foreign language education: If 'scandelous' in the 20th Century, what will it be in the 21st Century? Stanford, CA: Stanford Language Center. Retrieved June 12, 2006 from http://language.stanford.edu/about/conferencepapers/panettapaper.pdf

Historical overview from Clinton cabinet member about the lack a federal language policy in the United States. (Submitted by Steve Brock).

Weizbicki, Cynthia (n.d.). Tips for conducting a public advocacy workshop. Washington, D.C: Joint National Conference on Languages. Retrieved June 12, 2006 from http://www.languagepolicy.org/advwkshop.html

Practical tips from the Joint National Conference on Languages (JNCL) about conducting an advocacy workshop. The audience here would be language teachers per se. (Submitted by Steve Brock).

Curriculum Development

Crandall, JoAnn. (1994, January). Content-centered language instruction. Washington, DC: Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED367142) Retrieved May 26, 2006, from

This ERIC digest addresses issues of curricular content and program development models intersect. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

National Council of Less Commonly Taught Languages (n.d.). Retrieved 20 June 2006, from http://www.councilnet.org/home.htm.

This site addresses issues relating to LCTs, including objectives and their annual conference. (Submitted by Steve Brock)

Janus, Louis (1998). Less commonly taught languages of emerging Importance: Major issues, cost problems, and their national implications. UCLA International Institute. Retrieved 20 June 2006, from http://www.isop.ucla.edu/pacrim/title6/Break6-Janus.pdf

Conference paper provides a framework for understanding LCTs before the recent federal government impetus on their behalf. (Submitted by Steve Brock)

Instructional Strategies

Chamot, Anna Uhl, Anstrom, Kristina, & Bartoshesky, Abigail. The elementary immersion learning strategies resource guide (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.nclrc.org/eils/

The six chapters of this document outline twenty different learning strategies, describe techniques that teachers can use to teach them to elementary immersion students, explain how to incorporate them into lesson planning, model them in sample lesson plans, offer a review of the literature regarding learning strategies, an annotated bibliography, and a wealth of useful appendices. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Model Foreign Language Programs

Branaman, Lucinda, Rhodes, Nancy, & Holmes, Annette. (1999). National directory of early foreign language programs. CAL. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from

This searchable database of immersion programs allows users to search by state, program model, grade level. If you click on each link, you can see more information about what type of immersion program (total, partial, 2-way) is offered, how many students are served and at what grade levels, when the program began, the URL of the school's website, and additional contact information. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Program Development

ACTFL. (n.d.). Characteristics of effective elementary school foreign language programs. ACTFL. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3655

A nicely-organized, annotated summary of key characteristics of effective FL programs at the elementary level. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

CARLA. (n.d.). Resources for language immersion education. Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from

This annotated list of resources provided by the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition will connect you with an international list of professional listservs, organizations, and materials designed especially for language immersion teachers and parents of children in such programs. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Curtain.gif Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2004). Languages and children, making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K-8 (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-46371-1.

The last 5 chapters of this book are devoted to planning and sustaining effective foreign language programs and address issues such as making the case for initiating an elementary foreign language program, public relations and advocacy, selecting a program model, staffing a program, planning, assessment, articulation, and immersion. The book also contains a wealth of practical instructional resources, including ideas for assignments, literacy development, and standards-based games and activities; information on thematic planning, assessment, and classroom management; instructional strategies, templates, and sample student work. Image source: http://phcatalog.pearson.com/program_single.cfm?site_id=6&discipline_id=813&subarea_id=1323&program_id=12541
(Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Rosenbusch, Marcia. (1995, June). Guidelines for starting an elementary school foreign language program. ACTFL. Washington, DC: Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3654

A brief summary of things to consider in developing an elementary foreign language program, including cautions in program planning, the planning process, components of program design, characteristics of programs that lead to fluency, and ways to determine program feasibility. (Contributed by - chericem1 chericem1)

Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2000). Planning for success: Common pitfalls in the planning of early foreign language programs. CAL Digest, December, EDO-FL-00-11. Retrieved 20 June 2006 from http://www.cal.org/resources/Digest/0011planning.html

Article discusses a number of common problems with beginning early language programs, including the neglect of LCTs. (Submitted by Steve Brock).

Sally Morrison. Less Commonly Taught Languages. ACTFL// Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved June 18, 2006, from http://www.cal.org/ericcll/faqs/RGOs/lctl.html

This annoted list of resources comprises articles, websites, institutes, and professional journals dealing with less commonly taught languages.