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Dils, A. K. (2004).
The use of metaphor and technology to enhance the instructional planning of constructivist lessons.
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education
, 4(2). Retrieved May 2, 2005, from
Hooper, Don. (2001, October). Virtual learning in the box or out? The School Administrator. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from
A beautiful, short little piece that uses the metaphor of a child's birthday gift to suggest that when it comes to learning with new technologies, in-the-box thinkers consider improving the efficiency of existing routines and out-of-the box thinkers focus on leveraging possibility. In other words, the key difference between the two types of thinkers is vision, and this strongly impacts the quality and influence of online learning experiences.
Pugh, Sharon L., Hicks, Jean Wolph, & Davis, Marcia. (1997).
Metaphorical ways of knowing: The imaginative nature of thought and expression.
Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Seitz, Jay A. (n.d.).
The development of metaphoric understanding: Implications for a theory of creativity
. Retrieved April 30, 2005, from
Seitz, Jay A. (n.d.).
Nonverbal metaphor: A review of theories and evidence.
Retrieved April 30, 2005, from
"From Dr. Christiansen's book I learned that Erasmus's contemporary Phillip Melanchthon used a painterly metaphor to describe the art of speaking well: 'As the object of a painter is to copy bodies truly and properly--how difficult this is to achieve is no secret to the experienced--therefore, not only is art required for it but also a great variety of colors. so the object of the rhetorician...is to paint, as it were, and to represent the mind's thoughts themselves in appropriate and clear language; when he has toiled over it, he will need a great variety of colors as it were, of words, sentences and figures, and finally even a kind of art that at least I think is far greater than the art of a consummate and perfect painter can ever be.' For Erasmus and Melanchthon, good speech mirrors good thought. Professor Christiansen reminded me, however, that language is not just an effect of thought, but that artful language molds, disciplines, and constrains thought. Careless speech encourages grubby thinking ("words can . . . disfigure thought," said Erasmus)." Rosenberg, John R. (2010, Spring). Thy speech bewrayeth.
Humanities at BYU: BYU College of Humanities Alumni Magazine,
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